Cases and info about them

Case nameWhat was it
about?
DecisionReasonImpact
Korematsu Vs.
U.S. (1944)
Executive Order 9066 established
the japanese internment camps used in
the U.S. during
WWII.
Korematsu was
a young
Japanese
American that
refused to
relocate.
He challenged
the executive
order on the
grounds that it violated his 5th
amendment
rights
6-3 Executive
Order 9066 is
constitutional
The creation of the
internment camps was
a military necessity
and was not based on
race.
1. It allowed the internment
camps to continue to operate,
helping create division along racial lines and causing many Japane americans to lose home and property.
2. It is the first instance of the
SCOTUS applying the “Strict scrutiny” standard to a case dealing with race and is one of the only such cases where the courts sided with the government.
Delgado Vs.
Bastrop ISD
(1948)
US Federal district court case that decided the separation of the mexican american children based on national origin was illegalStop segregation of the childrenDistrict argued that the reason behind separating the children of mexican descent was due to lack of attendance and poor understanding of the english languageDid little to stop segregation in the united states
Sweatt Vs.
Painter (1950)
US Supreme court case that successfully challenged the “seperate but equal” idealism.9-0 Sweatt’s favorArgued that the legal education offered to sweatt was not equal to education he would receive if he was admitted to the university of Texas Law School.An influential in the landmark case of brown vs. board of education
Hernandez Vs.
Texas
Supreme court case that declared mexican americans and all other racial groups had equal protection under the 14th amendment9-0Pete Hernandez, an agriculture worker, was found guilty by an all-white jury in Jackson county, Texas.Hispanic descent became part of juries.
All racial groups in the U.S. became protected by 14th amendment
This ruling is considered another step towards the american civil rights movement
Brown Vs. Board
Of Education
(1954)
Court ruled that american state laws establishing racial segregation in public schools are unconstitutional even if the segregated school are otherwise equal in equality(9-0) in favor of the brown familyRacial segregation was happening in public schools.It paved the way for integration and was a major victory of the civil rights movement, and a model for many future impact litigation cases.
Gideon Vs.
Wainright
(1963)
Supreme court unanimously ruled that states had the right to an attorney.Gideon was given another trial and was acquitted of charges1961, he was charged with breaking into and entering a florida pool housem the giant have enoughmoney to afford an offense attorneyLegal system can be confusing
Rights to defendants
Miranda V.
Arizona (1966)
1969, supreme court case decision that sets guidelines for police questioning of accused persons to protect the against self-incrimination5-4In the 1960’s an immigrant named ernesto miranda was charged with the rape and kidnapping of an 18 year oldMust be informed of your legal rights prior to an interrogation
Tinker Vs. Des
Moines (1969)
U.S. Supreme court that defined the first amendment rights of students in u.s. public schools7-2 in favor of tinkermary beth tinker and christopher eikharat wore their armbands to school and sent home in suspensionFIrst amendment rights to students.
Wisconsin Vs.
Yoder (1972)
Amish families were convicted and fined for violating the law. amish families claimed their freedom was being violated7-0 amish families wonYoder and Wallance Miller, were both prosecuted under wisconsin law that required all children to attend public schools until the age of 16.First amendment rights exercised.
Roe Vs. Wade
(1973)
U.S. Supreme court case dealing with the issue of the constitutionalness of laws7-2 Jane Roe was pregnant with her third, tried to obtain a legal abortion by falsely asserting she had ben rapedTeenage Pregnancy
Effects on women
Riots/Protects
Has become a societal problem involving politics, abuse, and damage
University of
California Vs.
Bakke (1978)
A court case v E’s admission policy violating Bakke’s rights under the 14th ammendment equal protection clause 5-4Allan Bakke applied to U.S. med school. He was rejected and sued in superior court charging the University with reverse discriminationAccept more minority applicants was constitutional

The war in Europe

(Page 254)

Campaign in North Africa
and Italy
Campaigns fought in the
libyan and egyptian deserts
in morocco and algeria
D-Day / Normandy Landings
Allies invade normandy, france
Western allies and soviets
invade germany.
war in europe
Campaign in france and
germany
It was a german invasion of
france and the low countries during WWII
The holocaust
Refers to the attempted genocide of the
jews during WWII
Hitler and nazis concentration camps.

WWII: Pacific Front

The war against Japan
(Page 260)

Bataan Death March
1942
The Japanese forced
their prisoners to
undertake a 60-mile
march which faced
starvation, disease,
exposure to the sun,
and NO water. Half of
5,000 americans died
Battle Of Midway
Japanese were using their
control of the Western Pacific
to protect their home islands
and vast new empire. Japanese
Pacific fleet commander thought
he could defeat the U.S. pacific
Fleet
Island-Nopping Campaign
Military strategy employed
by the allies in the Pacific
War against Japan and the
Axis Powers during WWII
Use of the Atomic Bomb
Dropped in Japan.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
bombed. Japan surrenders; war
comes to an end.

Scandals and Technology Vocabulary

Embargo
An order of a government prohibiting the movement of merchant ships into or out of its ports
Subpoena
A writ ordering a person to attend a court
Saturday Night Massacre
It was one of the most controversial episodes of the watergate scandal
Contra
Were the various U.S. backed and founded right wing rebel groups that were in opposition to the socialist sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction Government
Prejury
the intentional act of swearing a false oath of falsifying an affirmation to tell the truth
Indictment
A formal charge of accusation of a serious crime
Pardon (Presidential)
The right of the leader of a country, to forgive someone for a crime or to excuse someone from a punishment
Iran-contra affair
A political scandal in the U.S. that occured during the second term of the Reagan administration
Dot-Com bubble
Was a historic speculative bubble and period of excessive speculation mainly in the U.S. that occured roughly from 1994-2000, a period of extreme growth in the use and adoption of the internet
Tower Commission
A response to the iran-contra affair in which senior administration officials secretely facilitated the sale of arms to Iran.
Star Wars
A program with the intention to protect the U.S. from missile attacks.
Whitewater
American political controversy that began with the investigation in the investments of Bill and Hillary Clinton and her associates.
Kent Star
A former jufge and official in Reagan’s justice department who was under investigation after the Monica Lewinsky scandal
E-Commerce
A result of technological innovations in computers, the internet, and wireless communications
Cyber Warfare
The use of targetting in a battlespace or warfare context of computers, online control systems, and networks. It involves both offensive and defensive operations pertaining to the threat of cyberattacks, espionage, and sabotage
Obstruction of Justice
Is a process crime, consisting of obstructing prosecutors or other officials
Globalization
refers to the technological, political, economic, financial, and cultural exchanges between peoples and nations that have made and continue to make the world a more interconneted and interdependent place.
Open Source
Is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.

Timeline: Advances in science and technology

1947: AmplifiersJohn Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William shockley invent the
transistor, which allows electronic equipment to be made much
smaller and leads to the modern computer revolution
1949: Barcodes and
barcode scanners
Bernard silver and N Joseph Woodland
patent barcodes – striped pattern that
are initially developed for marking
products in grocery stores.
1950’s: LasersCharles Townes and Arthur Schawlow
invent the Maser (Microwave laser)
Gordon Gould coins the word “laser”
and builds the first optical laser in
1958
1950’s: BatteriesStanford Ovshunky develops various
technologies that make renewable
energy more practical
1950’s: Microwave
ovens
Percy Spencer accidentally
discovered
how to cook with microwaves,
inadvertenly inventing the microwave
oven.
1957: SatellitesSoviet Union (Russia and allies)
launch the Sputnik satellite
1959: Computer
Graphics
IBM and General Motors develop Design Augmented by Computers-1
(DAC-1), the first Computer-Aided
Design (CAD) system
1962: Photochromic
lenses
William Armistead and S. Donald Stookey of Corning Glass Works
invents light-sensitive (photochromic) glass
1964: E-commerceIBM helps to pioneer e-commerce w/ an airline ticket
reservation system called SABRE
1965: DefibrillatorsFrank Pantridge develops the portable defibrillator for treating
cardiac arrest parents
1966: Computer
memory
Robert H. Dennard of IBM invents dynamic Random Access Memory
(RAM)
1967:Vacuum
Fluorescent Displays
Japanese company Noritake invents the vacuum fluorescent
display (VFD)

Cold War Vocabulary

Marshall Plan
A program by which the U.S. gave large amounts of economic aid to european countries to help them rebuild after the devastation of WWII.
Truman Doctrine
Address to congress to provide military and economic aid to Greece and turkey and, by extension, to any country threatened by communism or any totalitarian ideology
Domino Theory
The idea that if one key nation in a region fell to control of communists, others would follow, similar to how dominos fall together.
NATO
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The Soviet Union and its affiliated communist nations in eastern europe founded a rival alliance, the Warsaw pact
Space Race
Refers to the 20th century competition between the two Cold War rivals
-The Soviet union (USSR)
and
-The United States (US)
for dominance in spaceflight capability
Four power agreement
Was a treaty signed by the U.S. , U.K., France, and Japan. It was partly a follow-on to the Lansing-Ishil treaty
SALT
Signed by the U.S. and the Union of Soviet socialist republics and was intended tto restrain the arms race in strategic ballistic missiles armored with nuclear weapons
Candy bombers
Colloquial terms berliners gave to the western Allied (American and British) transport aircraft which brought supplies by airlift to West Berlin during the Soviet Berlin blockade
Eastern Block
Referred to the former communist states of eastern and central Europe.
Iron Curtain
Non-physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of WWII in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991
Proxy war
Armed conflict between two states or non-state altors which act on the instigation or on behalf of other parties that are nt directly involved in the hostilities
Credibility gap
Came wide use with journalism, political and public discourse. Describe public skepticism on policies
Mutual assured Destruction (MAD)
A doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in full-scale use of nuclear weapons

Chapter 31 Outline

Challenges of the 21st Century
2000-Present

I. Intro

A. Political Polarization

  1. Elections of the early 21st century revealed a nation closely divided
  2. Traditional, religious, and limited or anti-government rural areas and many suburban areas went REPUBLICAN.
  3. More diverse large urban centers and internationally minded coasts voted democrat

B. Domestic policies of the George W. Bush Administration

  1. Republican Tax Cut – Congress passed a $1.35 Trillion dollar tax, a bull lowered top tax bracket, gradually eliminated estate taxes, increased child tax credit and limits for IRA.
  2. Education and Health reform – President Bush championed the bipartisan “No child left behind Act”
  3. Economic bubbles and corruption – technology boom of 1990’s peaked in 2000, stock market crashed, unemployment rate climbed, people living in poverty increased.

C. The war on terrorism

  1. Roots of terrorism – US was faulted by many in the Arab world
  2. Early terrorist attacts – truck bombing of the World Trade Center – September 11, 2001
  3. The war in Afghanistan – Pres. Bush wanted Osama Bin Laden and other Al-Quaeda leaders “dead or alive”
  4. Homeland security – After 9/11 attacks, most americans were willing to accept background checks and airport checkers
  5. George W. Bush Foreign Policy – President bush worked with european nations to expand the european union and NATO, supported admission of China to the World Trade Organization and brokered conflicts between India and Pakistan
  6. Iraq war-
    Pres bush, in 2002 state of the union address, singled out Iraq, North Korea, and the iran as the “axis of evil”
  7. Operation Iraqi Freedom – In early 2003, Pres. Bush declared that Iraq had not complied with numerous U.N. Resolutions and that “the game was over”

D. Elections of 2004 and a Bush second term

  1. Four more years – reconstruction of Iraq had made some headway by 2005, when the Iraqis held their first election, created a national assembly, and selected a prime minister and cabinet ministries, but the violence continued
  2. Washington Politics – Pres. Bush pushed congress w/o success to privatize Social Security
  3. The great recession – the housing boom of 2002-2007 was fuel by subprime and fraudulent mortgage lending and runway real estate speculation
  4. The election of 2008

II. Domestic Policy During the Obama Presidency

A. The Transition

  1. Rapidly growing economic crisis dominated the transition between pres bush and obama
  2. Congress approved TARP funding

B. Presidential Initiatives

  1. Obama signed a number of executive orders to overturn actions of the Bush Administration

C. Economic Stimulus

  1. The “great” recession started in late 2007
  2. Stock market lost half of its value and unemployment peaked

D. Healthcare

  1. The U.S. “fee for service” medical system was most expensive and it promoted innovation but left people seeking for emergency rooms

E. Environment and climate change

  1. Energy Sources

F. Education

K-12 Education
(Race to the top)

G. Budget Deficits

  1. Recession devreased federal tax income receipts and increased federal spending to avoid depression

H. The Tea Party

  1. Opposition to growing national debt and to “obamacare” coalesced in a loosely united conservative and libertarian movement

I. Elections and money

  1. Citizens united v. Federal Election Commission
  2. “Legal Persons”
  3. New money

J. Election of 2012

  1. Election dominated by issues related to the great recession, the affordable care act, illegal immigration,

Chapter 30 Outline

Conservative Resurgance

I. The rise of Conservatism

A. Leading Issues

  1. Taxpayer’s Revolt – 1978 – California voters led to revolt against increasing taxes by passing prop. 13
  2. Conservative religious revival
  3. Elimination of Racial Preferences 1965
  4. De-Regulation of businesses

B. Ronald Reagan and the election of 1980

  1. Campaign for president – 1980 senator Edward Kennedy’s challenge to president carter

II. The Reagan Evolution

A. Supply-Side economics (Reaganomics)

  1. Federal Tax Reduction
  2. Spending cuts

B. Deregulation

  1. “Getting government off the backs of the people”

C. Labor Unions

  1. Reagan took a tough stand against unions
  2. PATCO

D. Recession and Recovery

  1. 1982
  2. Nation suffered the worst recession
  3. Banks failed

E. Social Issues

  1. Rue Vs. Wade

F. The election of 1984

  1. Republicans nominated their popular president by acclamation.
  2. Reagan took every state except minnesota

G. Budget and trade deficits

  1. National debt tripled from $900Mil. to $2.7Tril.
  2.  U.S. Trade Deficit reached $150 billion a year

H. Impact of Reaganomics

  1. Reagan years were the huge federal deficits of $200 to $300 billion a year

III. Foreign Policy during the Reagan Years

A. Renewing the Cold War

  1. Military Buildup
  2. Central America
  3. Grenada
  4. Iran-Contra affair

Civil Rights Vocabulary

Vocabulary

Black Nationalism- a type of political thought that seeks to promote, develop and maintain a black race identity for people of black ancestry.

Montgomery Bus Boycott-a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. It was a seminal event in the civil rights movement.

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)- an African-American civil rights organization.

Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)- was one of the major American Civil Rights Movement organizations of the 1960s.

Freedom Riders- were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961

Atlanta Exposition- Also known as the Atlanta Compromise Speech, was given on Sept. 18, 1895. Booker T. Washington spoke before a predominantly white audience at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta.

Jesse Owens- was an American track and field athlete and four-time gold medalist in the 1936 Olympic Games

Little Rock Nine- was a group of nine African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957.

Executive Order 9981- is an executive order that abolished the discrimination “on the basis of race, color, religion or national origin” in the United States Armed Forces. The executive order eventually led to the end of segregation in the services.

Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity- is responsible for enforcing federal laws that make it illegal to discriminate against a job applicant or an employee because of the person’s race, color, religion, sex, pregnancy, gender identity, and sexual orientation, national origin, age

Freedom Summer- was a volunteer campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African-American voters as possible in Mississippi.

March on Washington- The purpose of the march was to advocate for the civil and economic rights of African Americans.

Voting Rights Act- It outlawed the discriminatory voting practices adopted in many southern states after the Civil War, including literacy tests as a prerequisite to voting.

Civil Rights Act- outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

The Great Society-was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65. The main goal was the total elimination of poverty and racial injustice.