Chapter 28 Outline

Promise & Turmoil
The 1960’s

I. John F. Kennedy’s New Frontier

A. The election of 1960

  1. Nixon – 1960, was nominated for president.
  2. Kennedy – early 1960’s, he defeated his rivals
  3. Campaign – new medium of television. Kennedy appeared vigorous and comfortable
  4. Results – Kennedy defeated nixon by a little more than 100,000 popular votes

B. Domestic policy

  1. New Frontier programs – proved different to maintain

C. Foreign Affairs

  1. Bay of Pigs invasion – 1961
    Kennedy made a major blunder
  2. Berlin Wall – Kennedy agreed to meet soviet premier Khrushchev in Vienna in the summer of 1961
  3. Cuban Missile Crisis – 1962 the most dangerous challenge
  4. Flexible response – “brush-fire wars”
  5. Assassination in Dallas – November 22, 1963, in Dallas, TX:
    2 bullets from a rifle killed President Kennedy

II. Lyndon B Johnson’s Great Society

A. War on Poverty

  1. “Unconditional war on Poverty”
  2. Office of economic opportunity (OEO)
  3. Antipoverty agency with a billion-dollar budget

B. Great Society Reforms

  1. Food Stamp Act (1964) – help poor people buy food
  2. National foundation on the arts and Humanities (1965) – Federal fundings for the arts and for creative and scholarly projects
  3. Medicare (1965) – Health insurance for people 65+
  4. Medicaid (1965) – Paid medical care for the poor and disabled
  5. Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965)
    Funds for poor school districts, special programs
  6. Higher Education Act (1965) – Scholarships
  7. Immigration Act (1965) – Abolished discriminatory quotas based on national origins
  8. Child Nutrition Act (1966) – Added breakfast to school lunch program

III. Civil Rights and Conflict

A. Leadership of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

  1. The march on Washington – August 1963
  2. The march on Montgomery – 1965, voting rights march, “Bloody Sunday”

B. Black Muslims and Malcolm X

  1. New Cultural Identity based on Africa and Islam

C. Race Riots and Black Power

  1. Riots – “Burn baby, burn” and “Get whitey”
  2. The murder in Memphis – 1964

IV. The Warren Court and Individual Rights

A. Criminal Justice

  1. Mapp Vs. Ohio (1961) – Seized evidence can’t be used
  2. Gideon Vs. Wainwright (1963) – (poor)
  3. Escobedo Vs. Illinois (1964)
  4. Miranda Vs. Arizona (1966)

B. Freedom of Expression and Privacy

  1. Yates Vs. U.S. (1957)
  2. Engel Vs. Vitale (1962)
  3. Grisworld Vs. Connecticut (1965)

V. Social Revolutions and Cultural Movements

A. Student Movement and new left

  1. 1962 – Newly formed Radical student organization

B. Counterculture

  1. “Hippies”, “flower children”
  2. Led to demise in 1970’s

C. Sexual Revolution

  1. Premarital Sex
  2. Marital Infidelity
  3. Homosexuality
  4. AIDS

D. The Women’s Movement

  1. National Organization for Women (Present day)
  2. Equal Pay Act (1963)
  3. Civil Rights Act (1964)
  4. Campaign of the era
  5. Achievements

VI. The Vietnam War to 1969

A. Early Stages

  1. Buildup under Kennedy
  2. Tonkin Gulf Resolution

B. Controversy

  1. Hawks Vs. Doves
  2. Tet offensive
  3. LBJ ends escalation

VII. Coming apart at time, 1968

A. Second Kennedy Assassination

  1. 1964 – Kennedy’s younger brother, Robert Kennedy, became a senator in NY.
  2. 4 years later – he won a major victory in California’s primary in the presidential race but immediately after his victory speech, he was shot and killed by a young Arab nationalist, who opposed Kennedy’s support for Israel

B. The election of 1968

  1. Democratic convention at chicago
  2. White backlash and George Wallace
  3. Return of Richard Nixon