Chapter 29 Outline

Limits of a Superpower
1969 – 1980

I. Richard Nixon’s Foreign Policy

A. Vietnam

  1. More than half a million U.S. troops were in Vietnam when Nixon took office.

B. “Vietnamization”

  1. New president announced that he would gradually withdraw U.S. troops from Vietnam and give the South Vietnamese the money, weapons, and training they needed

C. Opposition to Nixon’s War Policies

  1. Reduced antiwar protests
  2. April 1970 – war was expanded
  3. Nationwide protest

D. Peace talks, bombing attacks, and armistice

  1. Secret meetings
  2. 1972 – “Peace is at hand”
  3. Nixon ordered a massive bombing
  4. Several weeks of bomber attacks
  5. 500 prisoners of war (POW’s)
  6. January 1973 – promised cease-fire and free elections
  7. Armistice did not end the war
  8. Death poll numbered at more than a million
  9. $118 billion spent in war
  10. 58,000 American lives claimed

E. Detente with China and the Soviet Union

  1. Visit to China
  2. Arms control with the USSR.

II. Nixon’s Domestic policy

A. New Federalism

  1. Congress approved giving local governments $30 billion in block grants over a 5 year time period in order to address local needs

B. Nixon’s Economic Policies

  1. Stagflation
    (stagnation plus inflation)
  2. Recession (1970)
  3. August 1971 – 90-day wage and prize
  4. 1972 – Congress passed Title IX, a statute to end sex discrimination in schools that receive federal funding

C. Southern strategy

  1. Nixon= 43% of popular vote in 1968
  2. He devised political strategy to form a Republican majority by appealing to the million voters

D. The Burger Court

  1. Liberal justices retired and replaced by more conservative members

E. The Election of 1972

  1. Nixon’s reelection was assured –
    1a. Foreign policy successes in china and the Soviet Union
    1b. The removal of George Wallace from the race by an assassin’s bullet that paralyzed the Alabama populist
    1c. Nomination by democrats of a very liberal, antiwar,

III. Watergate

A. White House abuses

  1. June 1972
  2. Committee was caught breaking into the offices
  3. “Dirty tricks”
  4. (CREEP)

B. Watergate investigation

  1. No solid proof
  2. Clear that nixon did engage in an illegal cover-up to avoid scandal

C. Other developments in 1973

  1. War power act
  2. October war X Oil Embargo

D. Resignation of President

  1. Obstruction of justice
  2. Abuse of Power
  3. Contempt of Congress

IV. Gerald Ford in the White House

A. Failure of U.S. Policy in Southeastern Asia

  1. Face of Saigon
  2. Genocide in Cambodia
  3. Future of Southeast Asia

B. The economy x domestic policy

  1. Bicentennial celebration in 1976

C. The election of 1976

  1. President Ford – Challenged by Ronald Reagan
  2. Emergence of Jimmy Carter

V. Jimmy Carter’s Presidency

A. Foreign Policy

  1. Human rights policy
  2. Panama Canal
  3. Camp David Accords (1978)
  4. Iran and the Hostage Crisis
  5. Cold War

B. Domestic Policy: Dealing with Inflation

  1. Troubled Economy

C. Loss of Popularity

  1. 1979 – “National Malaise” x “moral & spiritual Crisis”
  2. 1980 – Approval rating fell by 23%

VI. American Society in Transition

A. Growth of Immigration

  1. Undocumented Immigrants

B. Demands for Minority Rights

  1. Hispanic Americans
  2. American Indian Movement
  3. Asian Americans
  4. Gay liberation movement

C. The environmental Movement

  1. Protective Legislation

D. Conservative Shift

  1. Protest by diverse groups seemed to produce more social stress and fragmentation
  2. Conservative reaction to liberal policies of the Navy Deal and the Great Society was gaining strength in late 1970’s and proved a powerful force